Curved Force Line Elements Theory: Resolving the limits of modern physics (Third Edition)*


Table of Contents
Title Page, i
Copyright Page, ii
Dedication, iii
Preface, v
SECTION A: CLASSICAL RELATIVITY
Chapter 1: Success of Relativity, 2
1.1 Einstein’s Idea, 2
1.2 Appearance of Inconsistency, 16
1.3 Cause of the Inconsistency, 28
Chapter 2: Examining Three of the Five Inconsistencies in the Relativity Theory, 32
2.1 The Fifth Inconsistency, 32
2.2 The Fourth Inconsistency, 40
2.3 The Third Inconsistency, 44
Chapter 3: Correction of Inconsistencies, 48
3.1 Correction of the Third Inconsistency, 48
3.2 Correction of the Fifth Inconsistency, 52
3.3 Correction of the Fourth Inconsistency, 55
SECTION B: NEW THEORY
Chapter 4: Unifying Gravitational Force and Electromagnetic Force using Corrected Formulas of Relativity, 63
4.1 Unified Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory Using Corrected Formulas, 63
4.2 Establishing New Theories, 64
    4.2.1 Obtaining mass screening theory using corrected formulas, 64
    4.2.2 Introduction of electromagnetic monopole force line elements, 66
4.3 Theoretical Existence of the Gravitational Monopole (Positive Mass m+, Negative Mass m–), 69
4.4 Disclosing Physical Entity of Spin by the Monopole Force Line Elements of CFLE theory, 74
4.5 Relation Between the Neutrolateral Force and g Factor, 84
4.6. Solving Contradiction Between Electromagnetic Mass and Relativistic Mass, 86
4.7. Solving Notorious Paradox of the Abraham–Lorentz Formula and Its Meaning by CFLE Theory, 87
SECTION C: TEST OF NEW THEORY
Chapter 5: Applying Force Line Elements Theory to Earth’s Magnet, 99
5.1 Inconsistency Between Relativity Theory and Gauge Theory, Relation Between Gauge Symmetry and Introduction of the Gravitational Force Line, 99
5.2 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Described by Force Line Elements Theory, 105
5.3 Theoretical Value of Magnetic Field B Generated from Mass and the Real Observed Value, 108
5.4 Mechanism of Earth Magnetic Reversal, and its Period, 118
5.5 Relations Between Magnetic Reversal Period and Ice Ages, 122
5.6 Theoretical Reasons for Earth’s Pole Movement: A Comparison of the Theoretical and Observed Values of Pole Movement, 129
5.7 Realizations of The Possibility of Gravitational Force Screening and Anti Gravitation Phenomena Observed on Earth’s Surface, 136
5.8 Gravitational Wave as a Bundle of Force Lines, 146
5.9 Solving Origin of Magnetar’s Magnetic Field, 148
SECTION D: GENERALIZATION OF NEW THEORY
Chapter 6: Attempt to Unify the Four Forces by Force Line Elements Theory, 154
6.1 Increases and Decreases of Rest Mass, 154
    6.1.2 Solving origin of photon rest mass in superconductor, 154
6.2 Unification of Gravity and the Weak Force by Introduction of Weak Force Lines and Their Force Line Elements, 160
6.3 Solving Origin of Nuclear Force and Color Force, 169
6.4 Unifying the Electromagnetic Force and Color Force by CFLE Theory, 180
6.5 Solving Problem of the Generation of Matter by CFLE Theory, 188
6.6 Solving Problem of CP Violation in Weak Interaction, 190
6.7 Strong Force and Color Force in CFLE Theory, Solving Problem of Strong CP Violation, 195
6.8 Unification of the Four Forces by CFLE Theory, 201
6.9 Elementary Particles in Nature, 201
SECTION E: GENERAL APPLICATION TO GENERAL PHENOMENA
Chapter 7: Applying CFLE Theory to Particle Physics, 206
7.1 Reasons for the Existence of Various Particles and Their Characteristics, 206
7.2 Application to the Muon μ±, 208
    7.2.1 Force line curve of muon, 208
    7.2.2 Solving problem of anomalous magnetic moment of muon by force line curve of muon gμ = 3.792, 211
7.3 Application to the Pion π±, πº, 215
    7.3.1 Force line curve of pion, 215
    7.3.2 Disclosing Yukawa coupling by force line curve of pion gπ = 4.006, 219
7.4 Application to the Kaon K±, Kº, 221
221
    7.4.2 Solving problem of radius of muonic hydrogen by force line curve of kaon, 223
7.5 Application to the Proton, P, 227
    7.5.1 Force line curve of proton, 227
    7.5.2 Solving the proton decay problem of a grand unified gauge theory by CFLE theory, 228
7.6 Application to the Neutron, N, 223
    7.6.1 Force line curve of neutron, 223
    7.6.2 Solving the mystery of ultra luminous X-ray sources as exotic neutron star constituted by exotic neutron. Its muon replaced by kaonic oscillon through flavor mixing, 236
    7.6.3 Application to quark and neutronic seed nova, solving origin of short gamma ray burst, 242
7.7 Application to the Neutrino ν_i^± and Definition Rest Mass of Neutrinos, 247
    7.7.1 Force line curve and solving rest mass mystery of neutrinos, 247
    7.7.2 Solving origin of the neutrino oscillation by CFLE theory, 250
7.8 Relation Between Force Line Gradient and Orbital Number and Atom Number, 258
7.9 Disclosing the Identity of Dark Matter in the Universe by CFLE Theory, 260
7.10 Supplement for Quantum Dynamics Defect by CFLE Theory, 270
7.11 Relation Between the Inertial Constant and Force Line Curve g, 274
7.12 The Minimum Theoretical Clue That Leads to Quantization of Gravity, 275
Chapter 8: Applying CFLE Theory to the Sun and Stars, 282
8.1 Quantization of Solar Mass and Star Mass by CFLE Theory, 282
8.2 Obtaining the Possible Maximum Star Mass by CFLE Theory, 284
8.3 Quantization of Solar Size and Star Size by CFLE Theory, 286
8.4 Confirmation of the Inertial Constant of the Sun by CFLE Theory, 287
8.5 Solving the High Corona Temperature Problem by CFLE Theory, 289
8.6 Solving the Problem of the Nebular Hypothesis of the Solar System by CFLE Theory, 292
8.7 Resolution of the Solar Oblateness Controversy by CFLE Theory, 299
8.8 Solar Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⨀ and its Physical Meaning According to CFLE Theory, 303
8.9 Determining the Origins of 5~160 Minutes Solar Oscillation and Its Physical Meaning by CFLE Theory, 305
8.10 Relation Between Nuclear Decay (Fission) and Stellar Decay (Fission) in CFLE Theory, and Solving the Neutrino Shock Wave Energy Problem of Supernova Explosions by CFLE Theory, 308
Chapter 9: Applying CFLE Theory to the Solar System, 316
9.1 Quantization of the Planetary Orbit by CFLE Theory, 316
9.2 Solving Problem of Kuiper Cliff by CFLE Theory, 331
9.3 Definition for the End of the Solar System by CFLE Theory, 336
9.4 Quantization of the Maximum Planetary Number of the Solar System and Definition for Planets of the Solar System by CFLE Theory, 338
9.5 Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⨁ for the Solar System and Justification for Its Use, 339
Chapter 10: Applying CFLE Theory to Earth, 342
10.1 Electrical Permittivity Around a Charged Particle and Air by CFLE Theory, 342
10.2 Gravitational Permittivity of Air by CFLE Theory, 344
10.3 Gravitational Permittivity of Seawater by CFLE Theory, 346
10.4 Theoretical Predictions of the Mass of the Muon and its g-Factor from QED by CFLE Theory, 346
10.5 Theoretical Deduction of the Gravitational Constant G from Ε_O by CFLE Theory, 348
10.6 Gravitational Permittivity of Earth, 354
10.7 Solving the Old Riddle of Wind Waves by CFLE Theory, 354
10.8 Component of Earth’s Magnetic Force Line and Its Origin, 357
10.9 The Real Form of Every Force Line Element in CFLE Theory, 360
10.10 Obtaining the Maximum Age of a Stellar Universe by CFLE Theory, 362
Chapter 11: Applying CFLE Theory to the Galaxy, 363
11.1 Mass of the Milky Way by Keplerian Mechanics, 363
11.2 Introduction of Galaxy Force Lines and Galaxy Force Line Elements by CFLE Theory, 363
11.3 Solving the Problem of Mass Density Fluctuation and the Small-Scale Inhomogeneity Problem of the Universe by CFLE Theory, 365
11.4 Quantized Galaxy Mass Obtained by the Galactic Force, 367
11.5 Solving the Galaxy Dark Matter Problem by CFLE Theory, 367
11.6 Solving the Dark Matter Problem from the Rotations Curve of the Galaxy by CFLE Theory, 369
11.7 Quantization of Galaxy Size, 372
11.8 Quantization of Bulge Size, 373
11.9 Quantization of the Galactic Energy, 374
    11.9.1 Macro energy quantum ℏ_⨂ of the galaxy and the theoretical revolutions speed of the sun by CFLE theory, 374
    11.9.2 Possible maximum galaxy mass, 375
11.10 Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Shaping, 376
    11.10.1 The morphology of galaxies: why do they have such shape? 376
    11.10.2 Galaxy form and probability density functions form by CFLE theory, 377
11.11 Applying Schrödinger’s Equation to Macro Worlds, 398
11.12 Solving Origin Problem of Astrophysical Jet, 398
    11.12.1 Solving origin of relativistic jet from active galactic nucleus as galactic mass ejection, 398
    11.12.2 Solving shape mystery of planetary nebulae, 405
11.13 Applying CFLE Theory to Quasars as AGN, 410
    11.13.1 Solving the Identity of Quasars by CFLE Theory, 410
    11.13.2 Quantization of Quasar Size by CFLE Theory, 412
    11.13.3 Quantization of Quasar Energy and Solving Physical Meaning of Quasar Pulsation by CFLE Theory, 415
11.14 Quantization of the Galactomic Quasar Size and Solving Origin of Ultralong Gamma-Ray Burster by CFLE Theory, 416
11.15 Obtaining the Age of the Cosmos from the Solar Age by CFLE Theory, 422
11.16 Macro Energy Quantum ℏA of the Atomic World and Its Meaning: Quantization of Galactic Center as sgr A*, 424
11.17 Solving Mystery of Distant Quasar Mass Growth in the History of the early Universe by the Galactic Seed, 426
11.18 Galactic Charge Quantization by CFLE Theory, 429
11.18.1 Solving Origin of M-σ Relation by CFLE Theory, 429
11.18.2 Obtaining Galaxon Speed by CFLE Theory, 432
11.19 Structure of Galactic Nucleus by CFLE Theory, 433
    11.19.1 Structure of Galactic Nucleus, 434
    11.19.2 Solving Origin Mystery of Ultralong Gamma-Ray Burst from AGN, 440
11.20. Galactic Activity, 441
Chapter 12: The Second Inconsistency of Relativity, 445
12.1 Inconsistency of the Infinite Establishment of Relativity and the Infinite Relative Coordination System, 445
12.2 Tests for the Existence of the Absolute Coordination System, 447
12.3. Solving the GZK Paradox and its Meaning, 451
Chapter 13: Applying CFLE Theory to the Cosmos, 456
13.1 Predicted Cosmos Mass by the Standard Model, 456
13.2 Introduction of the Cosmic Force with Its Cosmic Force Lines and Cosmic Force Line Elements by CFLE Theory, 457
13.3 Quantized Unit Mass of the Universe by CFLE Theory, 458
13.4 Quantized Cosmos Size by CFLE Theory, 460
13.5 Obtaining the Age of the Cosmos and Hubble’s Constant by CFLE Theory, 461
13.6 No Cosmic Inflation, Wrong General Relativity and Right Solution of Horizon Problem by CFLE Theory, 462
13.7 Basic Structure of the Universe by CFLE Theory, 467
13.8 Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⋓ of the Cosmos and Its Meaning, 470
13.9 The Size of the Nucleus of the Present Universe, 472
13.10 Obtaining the Hubble Constant from Io by CFLE Theory, 473
13.11 The Meaning of Io and Comparison with the Hubble Constant of §13.5, 475
13.12 Solving the Gravitational CP Violation Problem by CFLE Theory, 476
13.13 Possible Maximum Mass Number of the Cosmos and Related Mass of the Cosmos, 478
13.14 Current State of the Cosmos, 478
13.15 Solving Cosmological Contradiction: How Could Start Cosmos from Singularity of Inside of Event Horizon, 483
13.16 Solving the Baryon Asymmetry and Future of the Universe Problems by CFLE Theorys, 489
13.17 Cosmic Systems, 494
Chapter 14: The First Inconsistency of Relativity, 496
14.1 Inconsistency of the Fourth Dimension, Absolute Speed and Empty Space, 496
14.2 Solving the Yang-Mills Existence and Mass Gap Problem, 510
14.3 Solving the Semi-empirical Mass Formula Problem, 523
Chapter 15: The Law of Inertia as Drawn by CFLE Theory, 529
15.1 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure (Ensue) Inertia for Real Life, 529
15.2 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Photon Radiation, 530
15.3. Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Establishing Quantization, 533
15.4 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Spin and Helicity, 534
15.5 Force Line Arrangements to Ensure Inertia for Quantization of the Big-Bang and Big-Crunch, 535
15.6 Quantum Theoretical Background of Orbital Movement in CFLE Theory, 536
15.7 The Uncertainty Principle, Mass Screening Theory, Inertial Law, and CFLE Theory, 538
15.8 Solving Mystery of Solar Looping and Coronal Mass Ejection by CFLE Theory, 539
15.9 Solving Mystery of 11 years Solar Cycle and 158 Days Sunspots Cycle, 562
15.10 Solving Origin of Earth Quake Periodicity and Prediction Possibility by CFLE theory, 573
15.11 Solving Origin of Pulsars Emission, Jet and Glitch from Neutron Stars by CFLE Theory, 624
15.12 Supplementary Data Analysis of Gravity Probe B and its Meaning by CFLE Theory, 636
SECTION F: CFLE THEORY APPLIED TO UNIFIED SCIENCE
Chapter 16: Applying CFLE Theory to Thermodynamics, 641
16.1 Disclosing the Identity of Heat by CFLE theory, 641
16.2 Corrections of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Solving Problem of Arrow of Time by CFLE Theory, 644
16.3 Philosophical Interpretations about the Neutral Symmetry of the Universe, 651
16.4 Difference Between the Quantum Mechanical Cosmos and the Atom, 651
16.5 Initial Condition of the Universe and Simple Early History of the Universe by CFLE Theory, 652
Chapter 17: Applying CFLE Theory to Classical Physics, 656
17.1 Testimony of the Existence of the Magnetic Monopole by CFLE Theory, 656
17.2 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure the Curve of Pursuit and Magnetic Monopole, 661
17.3 Correction of the Maxwell Equation by CFLE Theory, 665
17.4 Testimony of the Existence of a Gravitational ± Charge by Gauge Theory and the Meaning of Dirac's Equation, 673
17.5 Relations Between Maxwell’s Electrodynamics and General Relativity of CFLE Theory, 688
17.6 Correction of the Inconsistency of the Dirac Delta Function by CFLE Theory, 692
Chapter 18: Applying CFLE Theory to Quantum Theory, 696
18.1 Euclidian Geometry and the Uncertainty Principle: Focus on the Relation Between Geometry and Physics, 696
18.2 Possibility of Generalizing Schrödinger’s Equation by CFLE Theory, 705
18.3 The Quantization of the Electric Charge and Related Mass by CFLE Theory, 706
18.4 The Quantization of the Gravitational Field in CFLE Theory, 718
18.5 Table of Whole Energy Quantum ℏ􀜒 Values, 722
18.6 Solving the Inconsistency Between the Locality and Quantum Entanglement of Present Quantum Theory by CFLE Theory, 726
18.7 Solving Theoretical Deduction of Physical Constants by CFLE Theory, 728
18.8 Physical Meaning of Higgs Mechanism in CFLE Theory, 739
Chapter 19:Relationship Between QED, QCD, and the General Relativity of CFLE Theory, 747
19.1 The Proton Spin Crisis, 747
19.2 Similarities Between the Missing Precession of Planet Mercury and the Missing Spin of the Valence Quark, 749
19.3 Relation Between Quantum Mechanics and CFLE Theory, 750
19.4 Relationship Between General Relativity and Quantum Chromodynamics, 753
19.5 Solving Unexpected Split Between Parallel and Anti-parallel Spins of Protons, 756
19.6 Collapse of Dirac Equation and Einstein’s General Relativity in Hydrogen Atom: Origin of Lamb shift, 763
19.7 Solving the Contradiction between Cosmological Constant and Zero-Point Energy, 775
    19.7.1 Existence of Zero-Point Energy, 775
    19.7.2 Collapse of Einstein’s General Relativity in Vacuum, 780
19.8 Collapse of Bose-Einstein Condensate as Coldest Tomb of General Relativity, 785
19.9 Solving Problems of Origin of Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Spin Statistics Theorem, 794
19.10 Solving the Left-handedness Problem in Weak Interaction, 805
Chapter 20: Solving the Flyby Anomaly by the General Relativity of CFLE Theory, 809
20.1 The Flyby Anomaly, 809
    20.1.1 Proposed equation, 811
    20.1.2 Results, 812
20.2 Solving the Flyby Anomaly by the General Relativity of CFLE Theory, 813
    20.2.1 Galileo 1, 813
    20.2.2 NEAR, 818
    20.2.3 Cassini, 821
    20.2.4 Establishing the theoretical angle between Earth’s rotational axis and Earth’s magnetic South Pole, 825
20.3 Wrong Relation Between Einstein’s Equivalence Principle and Curved Space, 827
20.4 Relation Between the Theory of Curved Space and Renormalization, 838
20.5 Relation Between Charge Screening Theory and String Theory, 838
20.6 Relation Between the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and Gravitational Monopoles, 839
20.7 The Historical Road to Extra-dimensional Theory, 840
20.8 Conclusion, 842
Chapter 21: Solving the Carrier Mystery of Diffuse Interstellar Bands by CFLE Theory, 843
21.1 Discovery and History, 843
21.2 Mysterious Properties and Problems of DIBs, 845
21.3 Solving the Mysterious Properties of DIBs by CFLE Theory, 847
21.4 Conclusion and Historical Meaning of Present Astronomical and Chemical Spectroscopy, 858
Chapter 22: Solving the Mystery of the Origin of Anomalous Excess Positrons, 860
22.1 Brief History of Predictions, Experiments, Discrepancy, and Explanations, 860
22.2 Solving the Origin of Excess Positrons and Meaning of Positron Excess by CFLE Theory, 865
Chapter 23: Solving the Mystery of the Space Roar and Photon Underproduction Crisis by CFLE Theory, 876
23.1 Theory and Expectations, 876
23.2 Instruments and Observations, 878
23.3 Results and Discrepancy, 881
23.4 Solving the Mystery of the Space Roar by CFLE Theory, 882
23.2 Solving Photon Underproduction Crisis by CFLE Theory, 886
    23.2.1 Observation and Calculation, 886
    23.2.2 Solving the Mystery of the Missing Source of Photon, 890
Chapter 24: Solving the Cosmic Coincidence Problem by CFLE Theory, 892
Chapter 25: Trail Blazing: Solving the Band Gap Problem and the Mystery of First Order Fermi Acceleration by CFLE Theory, 922
25.1. Solving the Band Gap Problem: Why Can Band Gaps Not Accurately Be Calculated? 922
25.2. Solving Semiconductor Nanocrystals Problem: What Is the Cause of the Nonparabolicity of the Energy-Size Dependence for the Lowest Optical Absorption Transition of Quantum Dots? 935
25.3. Solving Dimensionless Physical Constants Problem: Why the Values of the Dimensionless Physical Constants Cannot Be Calculated at the Present Time, and Why They Are Determined Only by Physical Measurement? 941
25.4. Solving the Injection Problem, 943
25.5. Solving the Cosmic Ray Paradox: Why Is It That Some Cosmic Rays Appear to Possess Energies That Are Theoretically Too High? Why Is It that (Apparently) Some Cosmic Rays Emitted by Distant Sources Have Energies Above the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin Limit? 947
25.6. Solving the Cosmic Rays Knee Problem: What Is the Cause of the Cosmic Rays Knee? 949
25.7. Solving the Mystery of the Tunguska Event: What Is the Tunguska Cosmic Body? 953
25.8. Solving Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant Problem: Why Is the Gravitational Coupling Constant So Weak? 982
25.9. Solving the Large-Scale Anisotropy Problem: Is the Universe at Very Large Scales Anisotropic, Making the Cosmological Principle an Invalid Assumption? 984
Conclusion, 993
Appendix, 995
Bibliography, 999
Supplementary Section S25.7, for Specialists of the Tunguska Event and Cosmic Rays, 1
Supplementary Chapter: Cauda Physica Mathematica "i": Physical Realization of i=√−1 in ψ(x,t)