Curved Force Line Elements Theory: Resolving the limits of modern physics (Third Edition)*

Table of Contents

- Title Page,
*i* - Copyright Page,
*ii* - Dedication,
*iii* - Preface,
*v* **SECTION A: CLASSICAL RELATIVITY**- Chapter 1: Success of Relativity,
*2* - 1.1 Einstein’s Idea,
*2* - 1.2 Appearance of Inconsistency,
*16* - 1.3 Cause of the Inconsistency,
*28* - Chapter 2: Examining Three of the Five Inconsistencies in the Relativity Theory,
*32* - 2.1 The Fifth Inconsistency,
*32* - 2.2 The Fourth Inconsistency,
*40* - 2.3 The Third Inconsistency,
*44* - Chapter 3: Correction of Inconsistencies,
*48* - 3.1 Correction of the Third Inconsistency,
*48* - 3.2 Correction of the Fifth Inconsistency,
*52* - 3.3 Correction of the Fourth Inconsistency,
*55* **SECTION B: NEW THEORY**- Chapter 4: Unifying Gravitational Force and Electromagnetic Force using Corrected Formulas of Relativity,
*63* - 4.1 Unified Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory Using Corrected Formulas,
*63* - 4.2 Establishing New Theories,
*64* - 4.3 Theoretical Existence of the Gravitational Monopole (Positive Mass m+, Negative Mass m–),
*69* - 4.4 Disclosing Physical Entity of Spin by the Monopole Force Line Elements of CFLE theory,
*74* - 4.5 Relation Between the Neutrolateral Force and g Factor,
*84* - 4.6. Solving Contradiction Between Electromagnetic Mass and Relativistic Mass,
*86* - 4.7. Solving Notorious Paradox of the Abraham–Lorentz Formula and Its Meaning by CFLE Theory,
*87* **SECTION C: TEST OF NEW THEORY**- Chapter 5: Applying Force Line Elements Theory to Earth’s Magnet,
*99* - 5.1 Inconsistency Between Relativity Theory and Gauge Theory, Relation Between Gauge Symmetry and Introduction of the Gravitational Force Line,
*99* - 5.2 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Described by Force Line Elements Theory,
*105* - 5.3 Theoretical Value of Magnetic Field B Generated from Mass and the Real Observed Value,
*108* - 5.4 Mechanism of Earth Magnetic Reversal, and its Period,
*118* - 5.5 Relations Between Magnetic Reversal Period and Ice Ages,
*122* - 5.6 Theoretical Reasons for Earth’s Pole Movement: A Comparison of the Theoretical and Observed Values of Pole Movement,
*129* - 5.7 Realizations of The Possibility of Gravitational Force Screening and Anti Gravitation Phenomena Observed on Earth’s Surface,
*136* - 5.8 Gravitational Wave as a Bundle of Force Lines,
*146* - 5.9 Solving Origin of Magnetar’s Magnetic Field,
*148* **SECTION D: GENERALIZATION OF NEW THEORY**- Chapter 6: Attempt to Unify the Four Forces by Force Line Elements Theory,
*154* - 6.1 Increases and Decreases of Rest Mass,
*154* - 6.2 Unification of Gravity and the Weak Force by Introduction of Weak Force Lines and Their Force Line Elements,
*160* - 6.3 Solving Origin of Nuclear Force and Color Force,
*169* - 6.4 Unifying the Electromagnetic Force and Color Force by CFLE Theory,
*180* - 6.5 Solving Problem of the Generation of Matter by CFLE Theory,
*188* - 6.6 Solving Problem of CP Violation in Weak Interaction,
*190* - 6.7 Strong Force and Color Force in CFLE Theory, Solving Problem of Strong CP Violation,
*195* - 6.8 Unification of the Four Forces by CFLE Theory,
*201* - 6.9 Elementary Particles in Nature,
*201* **SECTION E: GENERAL APPLICATION TO GENERAL PHENOMENA**- Chapter 7: Applying CFLE Theory to Particle Physics,
*206* - 7.1 Reasons for the Existence of Various Particles and Their Characteristics,
*206* - 7.2 Application to the Muon μ±,
*208* - 7.3 Application to the Pion π±, πº,
*215* - 7.4 Application to the Kaon K±, Kº,
*221* - 7.5 Application to the Proton, P,
*227* - 7.6 Application to the Neutron, N,
*223* - 7.7 Application to the Neutrino ν_i^± and Definition Rest Mass of Neutrinos,
*247* - 7.8 Relation Between Force Line Gradient and Orbital Number and Atom Number,
*258* - 7.9 Disclosing the Identity of Dark Matter in the Universe by CFLE Theory,
*260* - 7.10 Supplement for Quantum Dynamics Defect by CFLE Theory,
*270* - 7.11 Relation Between the Inertial Constant and Force Line Curve g,
*274* - 7.12 The Minimum Theoretical Clue That Leads to Quantization of Gravity,
*275* - Chapter 8: Applying CFLE Theory to the Sun and Stars,
*282* - 8.1 Quantization of Solar Mass and Star Mass by CFLE Theory,
*282* - 8.2 Obtaining the Possible Maximum Star Mass by CFLE Theory,
*284* - 8.3 Quantization of Solar Size and Star Size by CFLE Theory,
*286* - 8.4 Confirmation of the Inertial Constant of the Sun by CFLE Theory,
*287* - 8.5 Solving the High Corona Temperature Problem by CFLE Theory,
*289* - 8.6 Solving the Problem of the Nebular Hypothesis of the Solar System by CFLE Theory,
*292* - 8.7 Resolution of the Solar Oblateness Controversy by CFLE Theory,
*299* - 8.8 Solar Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⨀ and its Physical Meaning According to CFLE Theory,
*303* - 8.9 Determining the Origins of 5~160 Minutes Solar Oscillation and Its Physical Meaning by CFLE Theory,
*305* - 8.10 Relation Between Nuclear Decay (Fission) and Stellar Decay (Fission) in CFLE Theory, and Solving the Neutrino Shock Wave Energy Problem
of Supernova Explosions by CFLE Theory,
*308* - Chapter 9: Applying CFLE Theory to the Solar System,
*316* - 9.1 Quantization of the Planetary Orbit by CFLE Theory,
*316* - 9.2 Solving Problem of Kuiper Cliff by CFLE Theory,
*331* - 9.3 Definition for the End of the Solar System by CFLE Theory,
*336* - 9.4 Quantization of the Maximum Planetary Number of the Solar System and Definition for Planets of the Solar System by CFLE Theory,
*338* - 9.5 Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⨁ for the Solar System and Justification for Its Use,
*339* - Chapter 10: Applying CFLE Theory to Earth,
*342* - 10.1 Electrical Permittivity Around a Charged Particle and Air by CFLE Theory,
*342* - 10.2 Gravitational Permittivity of Air by CFLE Theory,
*344* - 10.3 Gravitational Permittivity of Seawater by CFLE Theory,
*346* - 10.4 Theoretical Predictions of the Mass of the Muon and its g-Factor from QED by CFLE Theory,
*346* - 10.5 Theoretical Deduction of the Gravitational Constant
*G*from Ε_O by CFLE Theory,*348* - 10.6 Gravitational Permittivity of Earth,
*354* - 10.7 Solving the Old Riddle of Wind Waves by CFLE Theory,
*354* - 10.8 Component of Earth’s Magnetic Force Line and Its Origin,
*357* - 10.9 The Real Form of Every Force Line Element in CFLE Theory,
*360* - 10.10 Obtaining the Maximum Age of a Stellar Universe by CFLE Theory,
*362* - Chapter 11: Applying CFLE Theory to the Galaxy,
*363* - 11.1 Mass of the Milky Way by Keplerian Mechanics,
*363* - 11.2 Introduction of Galaxy Force Lines and Galaxy Force Line Elements by CFLE Theory,
*363* - 11.3 Solving the Problem of Mass Density Fluctuation and the Small-Scale Inhomogeneity Problem of the Universe by CFLE Theory,
*365* - 11.4 Quantized Galaxy Mass Obtained by the Galactic Force,
*367* - 11.5 Solving the Galaxy Dark Matter Problem by CFLE Theory,
*367* - 11.6 Solving the Dark Matter Problem from the Rotations Curve of the Galaxy by CFLE Theory,
*369* - 11.7 Quantization of Galaxy Size,
*372* - 11.8 Quantization of Bulge Size,
*373* - 11.9 Quantization of the Galactic Energy,
*374* - 11.10 Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Shaping,
*376* - 11.11 Applying Schrödinger’s Equation to Macro Worlds,
*398* - 11.12 Solving Origin Problem of Astrophysical Jet,
*398* - 11.13 Applying CFLE Theory to Quasars as AGN,
*410* - 11.14 Quantization of the Galactomic Quasar Size and Solving Origin of Ultralong Gamma-Ray Burster by CFLE Theory,
*416* - 11.15 Obtaining the Age of the Cosmos from the Solar Age by CFLE Theory,
*422* - 11.16 Macro Energy Quantum ℏA of the Atomic World and Its Meaning: Quantization of Galactic Center as sgr A*,
*424* - 11.17 Solving Mystery of Distant Quasar Mass Growth in the History of the early Universe by the Galactic Seed,
*426* - 11.18 Galactic Charge Quantization by CFLE Theory,
*429* - 11.18.1 Solving Origin of M-σ Relation by CFLE Theory,
*429* - 11.18.2 Obtaining Galaxon Speed by CFLE Theory,
*432* - 11.19 Structure of Galactic Nucleus by CFLE Theory,
*433* - 11.20. Galactic Activity,
*441* - Chapter 12: The Second Inconsistency of Relativity,
*445* - 12.1 Inconsistency of the Infinite Establishment of Relativity and the Infinite Relative Coordination System,
*445* - 12.2 Tests for the Existence of the Absolute Coordination System,
*447* - 12.3. Solving the GZK Paradox and its Meaning,
*451* - Chapter 13: Applying CFLE Theory to the Cosmos,
*456* - 13.1 Predicted Cosmos Mass by the Standard Model,
*456* - 13.2 Introduction of the Cosmic Force with Its Cosmic Force Lines and Cosmic Force Line Elements by CFLE Theory,
*457* - 13.3 Quantized Unit Mass of the Universe by CFLE Theory,
*458* - 13.4 Quantized Cosmos Size by CFLE Theory,
*460* - 13.5 Obtaining the Age of the Cosmos and Hubble’s Constant by CFLE Theory,
*461* - 13.6 No Cosmic Inflation, Wrong General Relativity and Right Solution of Horizon Problem by CFLE Theory,
*462* - 13.7 Basic Structure of the Universe by CFLE Theory,
*467* - 13.8 Macro Energy Quantum ℏ_⋓ of the Cosmos and Its Meaning,
*470* - 13.9 The Size of the Nucleus of the Present Universe,
*472* - 13.10 Obtaining the Hubble Constant from Io by CFLE Theory,
*473* - 13.11 The Meaning of Io and Comparison with the Hubble Constant of §13.5,
*475* - 13.12 Solving the Gravitational CP Violation Problem by CFLE Theory,
*476* - 13.13 Possible Maximum Mass Number of the Cosmos and Related Mass of the Cosmos,
*478* - 13.14 Current State of the Cosmos,
*478* - 13.15 Solving Cosmological Contradiction: How Could Start Cosmos from Singularity of Inside of Event Horizon,
*483* - 13.16 Solving the Baryon Asymmetry and Future of the Universe Problems by CFLE Theorys,
*489* - 13.17 Cosmic Systems,
*494* - Chapter 14: The First Inconsistency of Relativity,
*496* - 14.1 Inconsistency of the Fourth Dimension, Absolute Speed and Empty Space,
*496* - 14.2 Solving the Yang-Mills Existence and Mass Gap Problem,
*510* - 14.3 Solving the Semi-empirical Mass Formula Problem,
*523* - Chapter 15: The Law of Inertia as Drawn by CFLE Theory,
*529* - 15.1 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure (Ensue) Inertia for Real Life,
*529* - 15.2 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Photon Radiation,
*530* - 15.3. Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Establishing Quantization,
*533* - 15.4 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure Inertia for Spin and Helicity,
*534* - 15.5 Force Line Arrangements to Ensure Inertia for Quantization of the Big-Bang and Big-Crunch,
*535* - 15.6 Quantum Theoretical Background of Orbital Movement in CFLE Theory,
*536* - 15.7 The Uncertainty Principle, Mass Screening Theory, Inertial Law, and CFLE Theory,
*538* - 15.8 Solving Mystery of Solar Looping and Coronal Mass Ejection by CFLE Theory,
*539* - 15.9 Solving Mystery of 11 years Solar Cycle and 158 Days Sunspots Cycle,
*562* - 15.10 Solving Origin of Earth Quake Periodicity and Prediction Possibility by CFLE theory,
*573* - 15.11 Solving Origin of Pulsars Emission, Jet and Glitch from Neutron Stars by CFLE Theory,
*624* - 15.12 Supplementary Data Analysis of Gravity Probe B and its Meaning by CFLE Theory,
*636* **SECTION F: CFLE THEORY APPLIED TO UNIFIED SCIENCE**- Chapter 16: Applying CFLE Theory to Thermodynamics,
*641* - 16.1 Disclosing the Identity of Heat by CFLE theory,
*641* - 16.2 Corrections of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Solving Problem of Arrow of Time by CFLE Theory,
*644* - 16.3 Philosophical Interpretations about the Neutral Symmetry of the Universe,
*651* - 16.4 Difference Between the Quantum Mechanical Cosmos and the Atom,
*651* - 16.5 Initial Condition of the Universe and Simple Early History of the Universe by CFLE Theory,
*652* - Chapter 17: Applying CFLE Theory to Classical Physics,
*656* - 17.1 Testimony of the Existence of the Magnetic Monopole by CFLE Theory,
*656* - 17.2 Force Line Arrangement to Ensure the Curve of Pursuit and Magnetic Monopole,
*661* - 17.3 Correction of the Maxwell Equation by CFLE Theory,
*665* - 17.4 Testimony of the Existence of a Gravitational ± Charge by Gauge Theory and the Meaning of Dirac's Equation,
*673* - 17.5 Relations Between Maxwell’s Electrodynamics and General Relativity of CFLE Theory,
*688* - 17.6 Correction of the Inconsistency of the Dirac Delta Function by CFLE Theory,
*692* - Chapter 18: Applying CFLE Theory to Quantum Theory,
*696* - 18.1 Euclidian Geometry and the Uncertainty Principle: Focus on the Relation Between Geometry and Physics,
*696* - 18.2 Possibility of Generalizing Schrödinger’s Equation by CFLE Theory,
*705* - 18.3 The Quantization of the Electric Charge and Related Mass by CFLE Theory,
*706* - 18.4 The Quantization of the Gravitational Field in CFLE Theory,
*718* - 18.5 Table of Whole Energy Quantum ℏ Values,
*722* - 18.6 Solving the Inconsistency Between the Locality and Quantum Entanglement of Present Quantum Theory by CFLE Theory,
*726* - 18.7 Solving Theoretical Deduction of Physical Constants by CFLE Theory,
*728* - 18.8 Physical Meaning of Higgs Mechanism in CFLE Theory,
*739* - Chapter 19:Relationship Between QED, QCD, and the General Relativity of CFLE Theory,
*747* - 19.1 The Proton Spin Crisis,
*747* - 19.2 Similarities Between the Missing Precession of Planet Mercury and the Missing Spin of the Valence Quark,
*749* - 19.3 Relation Between Quantum Mechanics and CFLE Theory,
*750* - 19.4 Relationship Between General Relativity and Quantum Chromodynamics,
*753* - 19.5 Solving Unexpected Split Between Parallel and Anti-parallel Spins of Protons,
*756* - 19.6 Collapse of Dirac Equation and Einstein’s General Relativity in Hydrogen Atom: Origin of Lamb shift,
*763* - 19.7 Solving the Contradiction between Cosmological Constant and Zero-Point Energy,
*775* - 19.8 Collapse of Bose-Einstein Condensate as Coldest Tomb of General Relativity,
*785* - 19.9 Solving Problems of Origin of Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Spin Statistics Theorem,
*794* - 19.10 Solving the Left-handedness Problem in Weak Interaction,
*805* - Chapter 20: Solving the Flyby Anomaly by the General Relativity of CFLE Theory,
*809* - 20.1 The Flyby Anomaly,
*809* - 20.2 Solving the Flyby Anomaly by the General Relativity of CFLE Theory,
*813* - 20.3 Wrong Relation Between Einstein’s Equivalence Principle and Curved Space,
*827* - 20.4 Relation Between the Theory of Curved Space and Renormalization,
*838* - 20.5 Relation Between Charge Screening Theory and String Theory,
*838* - 20.6 Relation Between the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and Gravitational Monopoles,
*839* - 20.7 The Historical Road to Extra-dimensional Theory,
*840* - 20.8 Conclusion,
*842* - Chapter 21: Solving the Carrier Mystery of Diffuse Interstellar Bands by CFLE Theory,
*843* - 21.1 Discovery and History,
*843* - 21.2 Mysterious Properties and Problems of DIBs,
*845* - 21.3 Solving the Mysterious Properties of DIBs by CFLE Theory,
*847* - 21.4 Conclusion and Historical Meaning of Present Astronomical and Chemical Spectroscopy,
*858* - Chapter 22: Solving the Mystery of the Origin of Anomalous Excess Positrons,
*860* - 22.1 Brief History of Predictions, Experiments, Discrepancy, and Explanations,
*860* - 22.2 Solving the Origin of Excess Positrons and Meaning of Positron Excess by CFLE Theory,
*865* - Chapter 23: Solving the Mystery of the Space Roar and Photon
Underproduction Crisis by CFLE Theory,
*876* - 23.1 Theory and Expectations,
*876* - 23.2 Instruments and Observations,
*878* - 23.3 Results and Discrepancy,
*881* - 23.4 Solving the Mystery of the Space Roar by CFLE Theory,
*882* - 23.2 Solving Photon Underproduction Crisis by CFLE Theory,
*886* - Chapter 24: Solving the Cosmic Coincidence Problem by CFLE Theory,
*892* - Chapter 25: Trail Blazing: Solving the Band Gap Problem and the Mystery of First Order Fermi
Acceleration by CFLE Theory,
*922* - 25.1. Solving the Band Gap Problem: Why Can Band Gaps Not Accurately Be Calculated?
*922* - 25.2. Solving Semiconductor Nanocrystals Problem: What Is the Cause of the Nonparabolicity of the Energy-Size Dependence
for the Lowest Optical Absorption Transition of Quantum Dots?
*935* - 25.3. Solving Dimensionless Physical Constants Problem: Why the Values of the Dimensionless Physical Constants Cannot Be Calculated at the Present
Time, and Why They Are Determined Only by Physical Measurement?
*941* - 25.4. Solving the Injection Problem,
*943* - 25.5. Solving the Cosmic Ray Paradox: Why Is It That Some Cosmic Rays Appear to Possess Energies That Are Theoretically Too High?
Why Is It that (Apparently) Some Cosmic Rays Emitted by Distant Sources Have Energies Above the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin Limit?
*947* - 25.6. Solving the Cosmic Rays Knee Problem: What Is the Cause of the Cosmic Rays Knee?
*949* - 25.7. Solving the Mystery of the Tunguska Event: What Is the Tunguska Cosmic Body?
*953* - 25.8. Solving Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant Problem: Why Is the Gravitational Coupling Constant So Weak?
*982* - 25.9. Solving the Large-Scale Anisotropy Problem: Is the Universe at Very Large Scales Anisotropic, Making the
Cosmological Principle an Invalid Assumption?
*984* - Conclusion,
*993* - Appendix,
*995* - Bibliography,
*999* - Supplementary Section S25.7, for Specialists of the Tunguska Event and Cosmic Rays,
*1* - Supplementary Chapter: Cauda Physica Mathematica "
*i*": Physical Realization of*i*=√−1 in ψ(x,t)

- 4.2.1 Obtaining mass screening theory using corrected formulas,

*64*

- 4.2.2 Introduction of electromagnetic monopole force line elements,

*66*

- 6.1.2 Solving origin of photon rest mass in superconductor,

*154*

- 7.2.1 Force line curve of muon,

*208*

- 7.2.2 Solving problem of anomalous magnetic moment of muon by force line curve of muon gμ = 3.792,

*211*

- 7.3.1 Force line curve of pion,

*215*

- 7.3.2 Disclosing Yukawa coupling by force line curve of pion gπ = 4.006,

*219*

- 7.4.2 Solving problem of radius of muonic hydrogen by force line curve of kaon,

*223*

- 7.5.1 Force line curve of proton,

*227*

- 7.5.2 Solving the proton decay problem of a grand unified gauge theory by CFLE theory,

*228*

- 7.6.1 Force line curve of neutron,

*223*

- 7.6.2 Solving the mystery of ultra luminous X-ray sources as exotic neutron star constituted by exotic neutron. Its muon replaced
by kaonic oscillon through flavor mixing,

*236*

- 7.6.3 Application to quark and neutronic seed nova, solving origin of short gamma ray burst,

*242*

- 7.7.1 Force line curve and solving rest mass mystery of neutrinos,

*247*

- 7.7.2 Solving origin of the neutrino oscillation by CFLE theory,

*250*

- 11.9.1 Macro energy quantum ℏ_⨂ of the galaxy and the theoretical revolutions speed of the sun by CFLE theory,

*374*

- 11.9.2 Possible maximum galaxy mass,

*375*

- 11.10.1 The morphology of galaxies: why do they have such shape?

*376*

- 11.10.2 Galaxy form and probability density functions form by CFLE theory,

*377*

- 11.12.1 Solving origin of relativistic jet from active galactic nucleus as galactic mass ejection,

*398*

- 11.12.2 Solving shape mystery of planetary nebulae,

*405*

- 11.13.1 Solving the Identity of Quasars by CFLE Theory,

*410*

- 11.13.2 Quantization of Quasar Size by CFLE Theory,

*412*

- 11.13.3 Quantization of Quasar Energy and Solving Physical Meaning of Quasar Pulsation by CFLE Theory,

*415*

- 11.19.1 Structure of Galactic Nucleus,

*434*

- 11.19.2 Solving Origin Mystery of Ultralong Gamma-Ray Burst from AGN,

*440*

- 19.7.1 Existence of Zero-Point Energy,

*775*

- 19.7.2 Collapse of Einstein’s General Relativity in Vacuum,

*780*

- 20.1.1 Proposed equation,

*811*

- 20.1.2 Results,

*812*

- 20.2.1 Galileo 1,

*813*

- 20.2.2 NEAR,

*818*

- 20.2.3 Cassini,

*821*

- 20.2.4 Establishing the theoretical angle between Earth’s rotational axis and Earth’s magnetic South Pole,

*825*

- 23.2.1 Observation and Calculation,

*886*

- 23.2.2 Solving the Mystery of the Missing Source of Photon,

*890*